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    當前位置 > 首頁 > 新聞動態 > 科研動態
    成都生物所揭示歐亞大陸和北美大陸間生物擴散規律
    更新日期: 2019-03-20 作者: 姜德純 文章來源:兩爬室
    打印 文本大小:    

     數億年前至今,地球表層經歷了巨大的海陸變遷及大陸漂移。現今,歐亞大陸和美洲大陸之間被白令海峽隔開,但數千萬年前,白令陸橋連接著歐亞大陸和美洲大陸。白令陸橋的形成和相關的氣候變化直接影響了兩大陸間動植物的分布格局。 

       

      1 不同時期白令陸橋的地理格局(From Wen et al. 2016)。 

     中國科學院成都生物研究所李家堂課題組2015年發表了“Amphibians crossing the Bering Land Bridge: Evidence from holarctic treefrogs (Hyla, Hylidae, Anura)”文章。研究利用雨蛙屬物種的系統發育關系和生物地理學研究,揭示了雨蛙屬物種起源于美洲大陸,通過白令陸橋的兩次擴散事件擴散到歐亞大陸。但白令陸橋的形成是否對其它生物類群的交流有類似的影響,生物擴散的波動模式是否與古氣候及環境波動相關,這些科學問題仍有待于深入研究。 

     為解決以上科學問題,中國科學院成都生物研究所李家堂課題組利用白令陸橋作為生物擴散通道的大量前期研究,基于時間矯正的分子系統發育關系和DEC模擬的地理分布格局,整合分析了跨越白令陸橋的雙向擴散事件,研究涉及了包括植物、脊椎動物、無脊椎動物和真菌在內的大量類群及其相應的大量擴散時間,包括6次兩棲動物擴散事件,10次爬行動物擴散事件,5次真菌擴散事件,9次無脊椎動物擴散事件,5次哺乳動物擴散事件和57次植物擴散事件開展了深入的探索。結果表明了共61次從歐亞大陸向北美大陸和31次北美大陸向歐亞大陸的擴散事件,揭示了歐亞大陸和北美大陸之間存在長時間的不對稱量級的生物擴散交流。 

     研究進一步揭示了歐亞大陸和北美大陸之間隨時間變化的動態模式。在從歐亞大陸到北美大陸的方向上,約65百萬年前(Ma)以來的溫暖氣候使這一方向的物種擴散事件不斷增加,在經歷始新世-漸新世邊界(~35 Ma)的冰期氣候惡化事件時,擴散事件增速急劇降低,之后氣候回暖,擴散事件進一步增加,直到約25 Ma達到峰值,之后的降溫事件以及東亞季風氣候的形成,造成了擴散事件的下降,雖然在中新世氣候平臺期(~20-15 Ma)有一次減緩,但總體下降趨勢不變。 

     在從北美大陸到歐亞大陸的方向上,擴散事件數目在約65 Ma以來的溫暖氣候影響下不斷升高,經歷約35 Ma的冰期氣候惡化事件時,干燥的林地草原廣泛分布于北美西部地區,由此導致的北美生物類群的更替解釋了這一時期擴散事件的減少,直接造成了與歐亞大陸向北美大陸方向擴散事件的整體差異。隨著氣候回暖,擴散事件緩慢增加,在約15 Ma再次達到峰值,隨后降溫事件導致了總體的下降趨勢。 

       

      2 白令陸橋兩側大陸生物交換趨勢。(A)代表由歐亞大陸向北美大陸的擴散事件;(B)代表由北美大陸向歐亞大陸的擴散事件。 

     本研究進一步揭示了歐亞大陸和北美大陸之間不同生物類群的擴散事件具有不同的高峰期。由于在古新世和始新世早期,混合落葉闊葉林和常綠亞熱帶森林的北方熱帶植物區系帶廣泛分布于北半球,白令陸橋在這段時間是主要的擴散通道,此時適應溫暖環境的生物類群包括兩棲動物、爬行動物和昆蟲在這期間的擴散事件中占主導地位,兩棲動物的擴散非常顯著。昆蟲、爬行動物、兩棲動物和真菌在兩大陸間的生物交換發生的時間(~40-25 Ma)比植物和哺乳動物更早(~25-8 Ma)。 

       

      3 白令陸橋兩側大陸之間特定類群的生物交換趨勢。 

     在歐亞大陸和北美大陸地區不斷變化的環境條件,以及相關動植物類群的系統發育多樣性,是歐亞大陸和北美大陸之間不對稱生物交換模式產生的主要原因。在整個新生代期間,從歐亞大陸到北美大陸的物種擴散事件比北美大陸到歐亞大陸的物種擴散事件普遍較多,這些不對稱性主要體現在始新世末期和中新世期間較寒冷的時間。

     該研究成果以Asymmetric Biotic Interchange across the Bering Land Bridge between Eurasia and North America為題,已在國家科學評論National Science Review在線發表。中國科學院成都生物研究所的姜德純博士,法蘭克福大學Sebastian Klaus博士為論文的共同第一作者,李家堂研究員為論文的通訊作者。本研究得到中國科學院先導項目(B)和前沿局重點研究項目、國家自然科學基金、中國科學院西部之光及青年創新促進會等項目的資助。 

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