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    當前位置 > 首頁 > 新聞動態 > 科研動態
    成都生物所在動物雌性攻擊行為研究中獲進展
    更新日期: 2019-05-28 作者: 吳亞勇 文章來源:兩爬室
    打印 文本大小:    

     攻擊行為是一種高風險的競爭行為,常伴隨著受傷甚至死亡,這種行為多見于雄性動物之間。如:雄性個體可以通過競爭來確立自己的優勢地位,從而在配偶和資源競爭方面獲得益處。經典性選擇理論認為雌性動物一般不會發生競爭行為,尤其是攻擊行為。近年來,雌性攻擊行為逐步受到重視,并圍繞雌性攻擊行為提出了一些新的理論,但大量新理論都是基于鳥類和哺乳類等恒溫動物提出,而對于冷血動物,尤其是蜥蜴類的研究還極為欠缺。 

     中國科學院成都生物研究所傅金鐘研究員課題組吳亞勇博士與齊銀副研究員合作,以廣布于我國西北高寒地區且具有強烈攻擊性的雌性青海沙蜥(Phrynocephalus vlangalii)作為研究對象(圖1),通過自然條件、半自然條件下的控制實驗以及自然條件下的行為觀察(圖2),對目前雌性攻擊理論中占主導地位的幾個假說進行了深入的研究,包括配偶競爭假說、食物競爭假說和配偶守衛假說。 

     通過控制雄性資源的稀缺程度檢驗了雌性攻擊行為與配偶競爭的相關性,結果表明,青海沙蜥雌性個體強烈的攻擊行為與雄性資源豐富度無關:雌性之間的攻擊強度并沒有因為雄性數量的減少而上升;通過控制食物資源的稀缺程度檢驗了雌性攻擊行為與食物競爭的相關性,研究表明,青海沙蜥雌性個體強烈的攻擊行為與食物資源豐富度密切相關:當食物豐度很低時,雌性之間的攻擊強度明顯增大;且雌性之間的攻擊行為在繁殖后期比交配期更強烈;雌性個體可以從高食物豐度環境中獲得適合度收益:食物資源越豐富,雌性具有更大的體重和更高的繁殖成功率,且后代具有更高的越冬存活率;但高強度的攻擊行為會影響雌性的適合度收益,且在年際間表現出差異性:在第一個繁殖年中,自身體重變化和后代跑速與雌性攻擊性呈現負相關關系,而在第二個繁殖年,則呈現出正相關關系(圖3)。上述研究成果近日以“The driving forces behind female-female aggression and its fitness consequence in an Asian agamid lizard”為題發表于動物行為生態學國際著名期刊 Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology中。通過控制目標雌性周邊的社會環境,檢驗了青海沙蜥雌性攻擊性行為與配偶守衛的相關性,研究發現,領主雌性沙蜥會根據鄰居情況調節對入侵雌性的攻擊行為:無論是交配季還是非交配季,當鄰居雄性在場時,領主雌性會很快對入侵雌性做出行為反應;同時,在交配季節,如果鄰居雄性在場時,領主雌性對入侵雌性的信號展示速度會顯著加快,因此表明,青海沙蜥雌性的攻擊行為與配偶守衛有關。該研究成果早以“Female-female aggression functions in mate defence in an Asian agamid lizard”為題發表于動物行為生態學國際著名期刊Animal Behaviour中。 

     該工作首次較系統、全面地對蜥蜴類冷血脊椎動物雌性攻擊行為進化機制進行了研究,研究結果表明基于恒溫動物提出的雌性競爭理論同樣適用于蜥蜴類冷血脊椎動物。研究結果深化了對雌性競爭行為進化機制的理解,為性選擇理論的完善提供了理論依據。該研究得到了國家自然科學基金面上基金項目(3157227331872233)和青年基金項目(31201723,31801980)的資助。 

     原文鏈接1 

     原文鏈接2 

      

     

    圖1.青海沙蜥雌性領地守衛行為 

        

       

    圖2.青海沙蜥雌性攻擊行為研究圍欄(5m×5m

    圖3.青海沙蜥雌性攻擊行為對個體適合度的影響 

        

        


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