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    當前位置 > 首頁 > 新聞動態 > 科研動態
    成都生物所在干旱對花椒農林復合生態系統大型土壤動物的影響研究中獲新進展
    更新日期: 2019-07-05 作者: 廖梓延 文章來源:生態中心
    打印 文本大小:    

     全球變化背景下,干旱發生的頻率和范圍不斷增加,對我國農林業生產造成巨大的損失。大型土壤動物作為生態系統物質循環中的重要消費者,他們同化各種所需物質維持自身生長,同時又將排泄產物歸還到土壤中,在土壤形成、土壤改良、污染監測、生態系統修復、物質循環和能量流動中起著十分重要的作用。研究大型土壤動物對干旱的響應過程以及能否通過構建高效的農林復合種植模式來緩解干旱對農林復合生態系統的負面干擾,這對全球變化背景下生物多樣性保護、農林業的可持續發展都具有十分重要的意義。 

     花椒是蕓香科、花椒屬落葉灌木或小喬木,耐旱、喜光,主要分布于我國東南沿海、西南地區,在西北部分省區也廣泛栽培。花椒是一種重要的香料、油料植物,果皮、種子、枝、葉等均可入藥,花椒具有芳香健胃、溫中散寒、殺蟲解毒等功效,可治嘔吐、風寒濕痹、泄瀉、齒痛、蛔蟲等癥,又可作表皮麻醉劑,因此,花椒是我國非常重要的經濟樹種之一。在退耕還林、荒山造林、脆弱生態系統修復工程的實施中,四川、貴州、重慶、甘肅、陜西等省市營造了大量的花椒人工林,對貧困地區精準扶貧、精準脫貧、鄉村振興起到了重要作用。這些花椒人工林在干旱發生頻率增加的情況下,如何通過在林下種植經濟作物,從而提高農林復合生態系統的穩定性,抵御干旱對生態系統的負面影響,進而促進花椒人工林穩產、增產就顯得十分重要。 

     中國科學院成都生物研究所生態過程與生物多樣性組博士研究生王思忠在導師潘開文研究員的指導下,采用定位研究方法,研究了人工模擬干旱對岷江上游地區花椒間作大豆、花椒間作甜椒、花椒單作等種植模式下大型土壤動物的影響。研究發現干旱顯著降低了各種植模式下大型土壤動物群落密度、生物量、豐富度指數以及Pielou 均勻度指數。然而,不同類群的大型土壤動物對干旱的響應存在顯著差異,干旱顯著降低杜拉蚓屬和愛勝蚓屬的密度和生物量,提高花椒單作模式下婪步甲屬種群的數量和生物量。干旱改變種植模式對大型土壤動物群落數量的影響,在干旱條件下花椒間作大豆、花椒間作甜椒和花椒單種等三種模式對大型土壤動物群落數量的影響無明顯差異。但是,在無干旱的處理下,種植模式對土壤大型動物密度有顯著影響,表現為花椒間作大豆模式下土壤大型動物的密度最高。 

     研究表明種植模式可以顯著改變土壤大型動物的密度,干旱則可以改變大型動物對不同種植模式的反應,并顯著改變個別土壤動物的種群數量和生物量。結果顯示:可以通過構建合理的植物群落模式來緩解干旱對花椒林的負面影響,進而維持花椒人工林的穩定性。研究結果對構建可持續的花椒農林復合生態系統提供了重要科學依據。 

     該研究獲得國家自然科學基金(3137063231500517)的資助,文章以Response of the soil macrofauna abundance and community structure to drought stress under agroforestry system in southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau為題發表于Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science (2019) 

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      大型土壤動物對干旱和種植模式的響應 


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