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    《紅星新聞》成都科研者新成果 發現歐亞、北美大陸生物擴散秘密
    更新日期: 2019-03-22 作者: 文章來源:
    打印 文本大小:    

      數億年前至今,地球表層經歷了巨大的海陸變遷及大陸漂移。可能很多人不知道,現在遍布北美大陸各地的美洲黑熊其實并非當地的“土著居民”。在約350萬年前的全球冰期,美洲黑熊的祖先通過結冰的白令海峽才來到北美洲。 

      但其實,這樣的物種擴散事件并不僅限于這一時期,我們常見的雨蛙也是這樣的“偷渡客”,只不過它們的遷徙故事更加隱秘和古老,是關于一座“橋”的故事。 

      

      生物擴散示意圖 

      幾千萬年前,歐亞大陸和美洲大陸之間存在一條可以跨越海峽的通道——白令陸橋。它的形成和相關的氣候變化直接影響了兩大陸間動植物的分布格局。 

      紅星新聞記者從中國科學院成都分院獲悉,近期,中國科學院成都生物研究所李家堂團隊在《國家科學評論》(National Science Review)上發表研究成果,揭示兩大陸之間存在長時間不對稱量級的生物擴散。 

      92次物種擴散事件表明 

      歐亞、北美生物擴散交流長期不對稱 

      2015年,中國科學院成都生物研究所李家堂團隊發表文章,揭秘雨蛙屬物種起源于美洲大陸,通過白令陸橋的兩次擴散事件擴散到歐亞大陸的故事。 

      但白令陸橋的形成是否對其它生物類群的交流有類似的影響,生物擴散的波動模式是否與古氣候及環境波動相關,這些科學問題仍有待于深入研究。 

      研究團隊利用“白令陸橋作為生物擴散通道”的大量前期研究,整合分析了跨越白令陸橋的雙向擴散事件。 

      研究涉及了包括植物、脊椎動物、無脊椎動物和真菌在內的大量類群及其相應的大量擴散事件,包括6次兩棲動物擴散事件,10次爬行動物擴散事件,5次真菌擴散事件,9次無脊椎動物擴散事件,5次哺乳動物擴散事件和57次植物擴散事件。 

      結果表明,共有61次從歐亞大陸向北美大陸和31次北美大陸向歐亞大陸的擴散事件,揭示了歐亞大陸和北美大陸之間存在長時間的不對稱量級的生物擴散交流。 

      從恐龍滅絕到雨蛙“偷渡” 

      關鍵詞是氣候環境變化 

      為什么會形成這種不對稱量級的生物擴散? 

      研究團隊通過分析這些物種擴散事件的歷史,發現擴散事件在時間線上的動態模式與氣候環境變化具有很強相關性。 

      大約6500萬年前,白堊紀末期導致恐龍滅絕的動蕩寒冷氣候結束后,全球氣候逐漸回暖,白令陸橋區域也形成溫暖潮濕的環境,兩側大陸間的擴散事件都在逐漸增多。 

      大約3500萬年前,發生了一次冰期降溫事件,歐亞大陸物種通過白令陸橋向美洲大陸的擴散增速明顯減緩;美洲大陸向歐亞大陸的擴散事件明顯減少;隨著氣候回暖,兩側擴散事件又有所回升。 

      大約2500萬年前,降溫事件致使白令陸橋兩側的擴散事件不同程度的減少。 

      這一系列氣候變化最終導致美洲大陸向歐亞大陸的擴散事件明顯低于歐亞大陸向美洲大陸的擴散事件,進而造成兩大陸之間存在不對稱量級的生物擴散現象。 

      兩棲動物、爬行動物和昆蟲 

      曾是“偷渡”大軍主力 

      根據研究,歐亞大陸和北美大陸之間不同生物類群的擴散事件具有不同的高峰期。 

      在古新世(距今6500萬年-距今5300萬年)和始新世(約距今5300萬年-距今3650萬年)早期,混合落葉闊葉林和常綠亞熱帶森林的北方熱帶植物區系帶廣泛分布于北半球,白令陸橋在這段時間是主要的擴散通道。 

      此時,適應溫暖環境的生物類群包括兩棲動物、爬行動物和昆蟲。它們在這期間的擴散事件中占據了主導地位。其中,兩棲動物的擴散非常顯著。昆蟲、爬行動物、兩棲動物和真菌在兩大陸間的生物交換發生的時間比植物和哺乳動物更早。 

      在整個新生代(距今6500萬年)期間,從歐亞大陸到北美大陸的物種擴散事件比北美大陸到歐亞大陸的物種擴散事件普遍較多,這些不對稱性主要體現在始新世末期(約距今5300萬年-距今3650萬年)和中新世(距今約2330萬年-距今約530萬年)期間較寒冷的時間。 

      在歐亞大陸和北美大陸地區不斷變化的環境條件,以及相關動植物類群的系統發育多樣性,是歐亞大陸和北美大陸之間不對稱生物交換模式產生的主要原因。 

      據了解,《國家科學評論》(National Science Review)由中國科學院主管,中國科技出版傳媒股份有限公司主辦,是我國第一份英文版自然科學綜述性學術期刊。5年影響因子10.973,在SCI收錄的64種全球綜合性學術期刊中排名第5位。 

      紅星新聞實習記者 曾那迦 

      編輯 劉宇鵬 

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