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    《國家科學評論》NSR論文 | 千萬年前,誰跨越白令陸橋從歐亞前往北美?誰又反向而行,從北美前往歐亞?
    更新日期: 2019-03-27 作者: 文章來源:
    打印 文本大小:    

      美洲黑熊遍布北美大陸,它們體型碩大,形貌威武。但是你知道嗎?美洲黑熊的老家不在北美,而在茫茫太平洋對岸的歐亞大陸。 

       

      北美黑熊。圖源[1]  

      What?難道黑熊可以游過太平洋? 

      非也。在大約350萬年前的全球冰期,結冰的白令海峽天塹變通途,為兩個大陸的動物架起了遷徙的“秘密通道”。就是在這時,美洲黑熊的祖先通過結冰的白令海峽,來到了北美洲。 

      其實,這樣的物種擴散事件并不限于這一時期,幾千萬年前,歐亞大陸和美洲大陸之間存在一條可以跨越海峽的通道,這個通道就是白令陸橋。它的形成和變化直接影響了兩個大陸之間的動植物分布格局。 

       

      幾千萬年前,白令陸橋上發生了豐富的物種擴散事件。(圖片為幾萬年前人類延白令陸橋的擴散事件,與本研究工作的歷史時期有所差異,僅做圖示,圖源[2]) 

      最近,中科院成都生物研究所李家堂團隊綜合分析分子系統發育和生物地理數據,通過數據模擬,整合了92次跨越白令陸橋的物種擴散事件,對這條通道上曾經的繁忙圖景進行了重現[3]。 

      這92次物種擴散事件中,包括5次哺乳動物、16次兩棲爬行動物、9次無脊椎動物、5次真菌和57次植物擴散事件。研究者發現,物種在兩個大陸之間的遷徙是不對稱的:美洲大陸向歐亞大陸的擴散事件(31次)明顯低于歐亞大陸向美洲大陸的擴散事件(61次) 

       

      物種在兩個大陸之間的遷徙具有不對稱性。圖源[3] 

      為什么會這樣? 

      分析發現,這種不對稱性與氣候變化有關。從6500萬年前到1500萬年前的漫長時光中,地球經歷了幾次氣候波動,有時全球回暖,有時又進入冰期。在溫暖季節,白令陸橋上的雙向遷徙都比較頻繁;而在寒冷的冰期,雖然歐亞大陸的物種依舊通過白令海峽向北美大陸遷徙,北美大陸的物種卻似乎變“懶”了,它們向歐亞大陸的遷徙大幅減少。于是,經過幾千萬年的往復積累,就形成了這樣不對稱的遷徙格局。 

      該研究成果以“Asymmetric Biotic Interchange across the Bering Land Bridge between Eurasia and North America為題,在線發表于《國家科學評論》(National Science Review,https://doi.org/10.1093/nsr/nwz035,點擊左下方[閱讀原文]可讀全文)。中國科學院成都生物研究所的姜德純博士,法蘭克福大學Sebastian Klaus博士為論文的共同第一作者,李家堂研究員為論文的通訊作者。 

      [1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_black_bear 

      [2] PLoS ONE 2(9): e829. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000829. 

      [3] National Science Review. doi:10.1093/nsr/nwz035. 


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